what are programming paradigm? and It’s 7 Types

In this post, we are going to cover what are programming paradigms, and their types. Advantages and disadvantages of various programming paradigms.

The grandiose of programming is very eye-catching, click your keyboard a few hundred times you can hack someone’s phone, or create the most spectacular application of the decade, or as some people see it, earn a lot of cash. Yes, it is very eye-catching and intriguing and pleasing but in reality, it is as hard as any skill to master. Starting on the right path is one of the most main things otherwise you are going to end up on the wrong side of the river.

One of the best ways to get started is to start early, as early as possible. Programming is fairly simple to begin. And once you start programming you will definitely stick to it. Now you don’t have to be in a very reputed college or a kid with a very high IQ even someone with a very humble background can get started.

Now that you have taken the baby steps, you are ready to walk this is a time. where you take courses on the fundamentals, learn about the programming language and its syntax, practice, and practice. The more you can practice now, the less you will worry later.

It is time to choose the path that you are going to tread for the rest of the journey, it is time to choose to do what you love and what you want. There are a plethora of options to choose front-end developer, full-stack developer, data scientist, web designer, and the list goes on.

Table of Contents

What are Programming Paradigms?

The Programming Paradigm is the way or writing style of the program in a specified way. It defines the way of approaching the problem and the method used to design and solve them. In simple words, it’s a blueprint for programming languages.

The programming Paradigms are essential for every programming language. Programming languages can have more than one paradigm associated with them. There are more than 8000 programming languages used for different purposes. To help users understand similarities, differences, and methodology, These programming languages are divided into programming paradigms. To learn python check out the best sources to learn python

Every programming language has its uniqueness, advantages, and disadvantages. But still, they have to follow some way of structure or method to solve a particular problem. This approach is known as the programming paradigm.

There are 2 main types and 6 subtypes of programming paradigms.

For example, C is a procedural programming language and hence focuses on its procedures and function. Similarly, C++ is object-oriented which emphasis on data.

What are the types of Programming Paradigms ?

There are mainly 2 types of programming paradigms

Programming paradigms

1. Imperative programming paradigm:

It is command-driven Programming and it is the oldest programming paradigm. It has close relation with machine architecture. It is based on the von Neumann model or Princeton architecture. The Word Imperative itself means command in the Latin language.

It follows the sequential execution of the instruction. The set of programs, statements, or instructions are executed step by step. Each statement directs the program what to do, and the control statements direct the execution of the program.

Imperative Programming languages include FORTRAN, C, JAVA, C++, etc

Advantages of Imperative Programming Paradigm:

  • Its easy to Read.
  • Its simple to implement.
  • Beginner friendly.
  • Feasbility
  • Widely used

Disadvantages of Imperative Programming Paradigm:

  • Optimization could be difficult
  • Errors are more while editing
  • When code becomes bigger, it becomes difficult to underdstand.
  • Confusing codes
  • Ugardes are harder
  • limited application development

2. Declarative Programming Paradigm

Declarative Programming focuses on what should be accomplished instead of how to achieve it. It focuses on Computation logic and doesn’t care to control the flow of the program. These kinds of programming languages are more secure. This paradigm focuses on building applications without defining the control flow of the program.

The structure of the program is short and easy to build parallel processing applications. It focuses on results instead of methods.

Advantages of Declarative programming:

  • Easy to optimize
  • Reusable and maintainable
  • flexible method Implementation
  • Improved code quality

Disadvantages of Declarative programming:

  • Not beginner Friendly
  • More Complex structure
  • Complicated algorithm and functions.
  • Unknown Theoritical model.

Imperative programming paradigms Types

1. Procedural programming paradigm

Procedural programming is the way of programming where, the programs are divided into smaller units called functions(routines, sub-routines). And the solution is derived for each smaller unit. In this type of language, Functions are given more value than data and there are no access specifiers are present in this type and also it is harder to add new functions and data. It is based on the concept of the procedure call.

C, FORTRAN is based on procedural programming.

The advantages of Procedural Programming are

  • It works well for genral purpose
  • There are lots of resources to learn
  • The control flow of program can easily tracked
  • Code reusability
  • The Execution of code is faster
  • Implementation of algorithm is easier.
  • The code is simplified.

Disadvantages of Procedural Programming are

  • In most of the cases its not practical in term of real world objects.
  • Its less secure
  • It doesnot provide inhertance or data encapsulation.
  • more development time is required.
  • Increased code duplication.
  • Fuction overloading is not possible
  • The importance is given to procedure, Instead of data.
  • The data is rxposed to whole Program.

2. Object Oriented programming Paradigm

Object-Oriented Programming is a method where real-world problems are considered as objects and classes. This approach has more advantages compared to procedural programming. Here the more importance is given to data instead of procedure. Object-Oriented paradigms don’t have set standards.

It is based on the concepts of an object- A real-world entity that has characteristics and attributes. And the class provides the blueprint for those collections of objects. In OOP everything is referred to as classes and objects. C++, JAVA are examples of object-oriented Programming Paradigm

The advantages of Object-Oriented Programming are

  • Its more secure because of data encapsulatio.
  • It supports inhertance
  • It supports Polymorphism
  • Development time is less.
  • Function and operator overloading is possible.
  • Data is given more Importance
  • OOP provides Access Specifiers
  • Code Reusability is more
  • Its easier to understand
  • Its easier to Troubleshoot problems
  • Code Maintance is easier

Disadvantages of Object-Oriented Programming are

  • Every real world entity cannot be converted in Objects
  • development time is more
  • Exection time is slower compared to procedural programming
  • More CPU usage
  • Learning requires more time
  • Size of the program tends to be more

3. Parallel processing Paradigm

Parallel processing is a method used to increase the execution speed of the program. As the name suggests the instructions are divided among processors to process instruction parallelly. A CPU can be used to its maximum extent using parallel processing. It is similar to the divide and conquers method.

The parallel Processing Paradigm is further divided into Data parallel and message passing.

The advantages of the Parallel processing Paradigm are

  • Faster Execution of program.
  • Good resouirce Utilization
  • Stimulation and modulization can be carrued out easily
  • Program can be divided between processess.
  • Larger programs can be executed in less time.

Disadvantages of Parallel Programming Paradigm are

  • Its harder to design Parallel processing architecture
  • Every program cannot utilize parallel processing.
  • Various optimization and tweaks has to be made to utilize parallel processing.
  • The cost of developoing such articutre is more.
  • The temperature of CPU and other Components increases rapidly
  • debugging and error detection are harder
  • Impletation of parallel processing is harder
  • The parallel processing is poer and resource hungry.

Declarattive Programming Paradigms Types

1. logic programming paradigm

Logical programming is a way of using mathematical logic to create a program. It is an abstract model. This type of programming language statement is in logical form. prolog and datalog are examples of these kinds of languages

Advantages of logical Programming are:

  • More flexible and understanable program
  • Has knowlegede base for every implementation
  • It is more realiable
  • Faster development
  • It has simlpe and lesser steps

Disadvantages of logical Programming are:

  • There is no suitable method of representation
  • No proper technologocal improvements
  • Only limited to some types of problems.
  • Slower excution time
  • Boolean statement cannot solve all problems.

2. Functional programming Paradigm

As the name suggests Functional programming paradigm uses functions to create efficient software. It is quite opposite of object-oriented programming and procedural programming. C#, Perl utilizes this type of function. In functional programming, functions can be passed as arguments and returned.

Advantages of Functional Programming are

  • Abstraction
  • Supports parallel programming
  • Its easy to Debug
  • Development is faster
  • Pure fuctions are easier to understand
  • Functions can be passed as arguments
  • Can be used for mathematical computation

Disadvantages of Functional Programming

  • Some pure functions can reduce readbility
  • Recurrsion is harder to implementt and understand
  • Combining pure function with application are harder
  • Reduced performance
  • Recurrsion may lead to insufficient memory usage.

3. DataBase programming Paradigm

This is the programming type that is based on large data and its movement. dataBase programming is widely used in conjunction with other programming languages. This type of language is used to store information, retrieve and update data, and for other data handling functions. SQL, Redis, etc are belong to this type of paradigm.

Advantages of DataBase Programming

  • Data duplication and redundency is reduced
  • Higher Consistency
  • Data integrity
  • Easier data handling
  • Maintancie is easier
  • Reduced storage and Retrival cost
  • Easier grouping and retrival
  • Sorted Data
  • Improved Data security

Disadvantages of DataBase Programming

  • Hard to design such application
  • Harder for Beginners
  • Misleading can cause to loss of data
  • Error in Database effects Application
  • Higher initial costs

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